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Training by Speed or by Heart Rate - Which One Should I Use?心率VS速度,孰好孰坏

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发表于 2013-1-6 11:48 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
Training by Speed or by Heart Rate - Which One Should I Use?Visit any online running forum or discussion group, and you will see ongoing debates about different types of training. On opposite ends of the debate are two types of training: “velocity based” training and “heart rate” training. One method focuses on speed, the other emphasizes heart rate “zones.” Proponents of each method - and similar variants of these training methods - can sometimes become quite critical of the “other side” in the debate. Runners who are searching for ways to improve their economy, speed, endurance, and stamina easily can become confused by the point/counterpoint in the debate.
在互联网上浏览有关跑步的论坛或是群体讨论时,你会经常看到一些针对不同训练方法的争论。这些争论往往是针对两种不同的训练方式:速度训练法和心率训练法。一个是关注速度,而另一个则强调心率区间。每种方法的支持者,或是使用类似方法的人,很多时候都会对另一个方法颇有微词。一些在寻找合适自己训练方式以其提高他们跑步的经济性、速度、耐力及持久力的人,面对这些争辩中的正反观点也颇感困惑。
There is no stand-alone formula or training method that can guarantee “running success,” however that is defined, for every runner. Some runners want to lose weight and improve their overall endurance. Others aim for specific time goals in the 5K, 10K or other distances.
但是,确定无疑的是,对于每一个跑者而言,没有唯一的的公式或是训练方法来保证其跑步的成功。有的人希望通过跑步来减肥并提高他们的耐力。其他一些人的目标则可能是在确定的时间内跑完5km、10km或是其它距离。
One constant in the various training methods is consistency. Whether a runner is targeting a Boston Marathon qualifying time, or hoping to run a decent 5K at the end of a sprint triathlon, it is important is to find an appropriate training method and stick to it. Bouncing from one method to another without understanding the concepts and objectives is frustrating and unproductive.
对于不同的训练方法,一个不变的原则是对跑步的坚持和持续。无论跑步的目标是达到参加波斯顿比赛资格的时间,还是希望在铁三比赛中完美地完成5km跑的最后冲刺,重要的是要找到一个适合自己的训练方法并坚持下去。在没有理解其原则和目标的情况下,不断地尝试不同的训练方法,将是徒劳无益并令人沮丧。
More important, runners need to understand the basic principles of different training techniques so that they can select a method that best fits their ability and long-term goals.
更为重要的是,跑者需要明白不同训练方法的一些基本原则,以便他们可以选择最适合于他们能力和长远目标的方法。

Velocity-based training is all about goal speed
速度训练是完全基于目标配速的
In its simplest terms, velocity based training consists of running certain distances at a specified pace, or at workout paces that are tied to that specific pace. This does not mean that any runner can simply pick a goal pace - like 7 minutes/mile for a marathon - and start training at that pace. Sure, it would be nice to run your “wishful” pace for a quarter mile and slowly build that up to 26 miles. But that’s not how it works.
速度训练最简单的定义是:以一定的配速跑完特定的距离,或者以特定的配速完成一些训练课程。这并不是说任何一个跑者都可以一开始就按照既定的马拉松配速,如7分\英里,去训练。当然,以你"理想"的速度完成四分之一英里到完成一个全马这会是一件非常美妙的事情。但是,这里不是讨论这个过程是怎么做到的。
In order to train at appropriate speed, a runner must know his or her “VO2max,” which is the maximum amount of oxygen the runner can take in, process, and use to provide energy. Generally, the faster a runner can go, the greater amount of oxygen he or she can use. VO2max is not something you can measure on your own using off-the-shelf technology (like a heart-rate monitor). Precise measurement requires laboratory conditions on a treadmill or other exercise equipment. Even with that equipment, determining an exact VO2max can be somewhat tricky, and might require repeated tests in a controlled environment. Since that is not readily available to most runners, the next-best-thing to using VO2max is the “VDOT” formula. The VDOT system, which was developed by renowned running coach Jack Daniels, approximates VO2max based on a runner’s time for any specific distance and assigns a “VDOT value” to the runner.
为了在特定的速度下训练,跑者必须知道他或她的“最大摄氧量",这个值是指跑者能够摄入、产生并且将之转为能量的氧气值。一般来说,一个跑者能够跑的更快,那么他\她能够利用的氧气值就越大。利用你自己所拥有的设备(如心率表)是不能测出最大摄氧值的。精确的测量需要实验室条件下,使用跑步机或其他健身器材。即使使用这种设备,确定一个精确的最大摄氧量也有难度,不仅仅要严格控制环境,而且很可能需要反复试验。因为对大多数跑者而言,这是不容易获得的,所以接下来有个更好的衡量最大摄氧量值的VDOT公式出现了。 由著名的跑步教练杰克·丹尼尔斯开发出来的VDOT系统,根据跑者在跑完特定距离所需要的时间来估算最大摄氧值,并且计算该跑者的VDOT值。
Once the runner has a VDOT value, the Daniels method assigns training paces for various distances based on that VDOT value. Long runs, easy runs, threshold runs and interval workout paces are all tied to that VDOT value.
当跑者获得了VDOT值后,Daniels方法会依据这数值来计算不同距离训练的配速。长距离跑,轻松跑,乳酸门槛跑以及间歇跑的配速都可以由VDOT值来计算。(二猪注:在网上找到了一个计算网址:http://www.attackpoint.org/trainingpaces.jsp 有兴趣的可以看看)
Keep in mind that the objective of endurance training is to increase VO2max, and in turn increase the VDOT value. The higher the number, the faster the pace. Using the Daniels Running Formula - or similar systems such as the McMillan Running Calculator - runners find guidance to train for anything from short distances to marathons.
请记住,耐力训练的目标是增大最大摄氧量,也就是增加VDOT值。数值越高,你就跑得越快。使用丹尼尔斯公式 - 或类似的系统,如麦克米兰跑步计算器 - 跑者可以找到从短距离到马拉松距离的所有配速指导。

Heart rate training is all about staying in a “zone.”
心率锻炼就是保持在一个“区间”
Heart rate training uses a heart rate monitor and various training zones based on a runner’s maximal heart rate. There are dozens of published materials that recommend certain zones for training, ranging anywhere from 60%-80% of maximal heart rate for the “aerobic zone,” and similar percentages for “easy/recovery” zones, “lactate threshold” zones, and so on.
心率训练指的的使用心率表(心率监视器),以跑者的最大心率为依据,在不同的心率区间范围内进行锻炼。市面上有太多的书籍和资料给出了心率区间的划分建议,基本上将60%-80%划为有氧锻炼区,也被称作为“轻松/恢复”区,当然还有“乳酸阀门”区等等。
Some materials simply suggest that runners subtract their age from 220 to determine maximal heart rate, but that is extremely simplistic and not very useful. The better method is to use heart rate reserve, or “HRR,” which takes into account a runner’s resting heart rate as well as maximal heart rate. Thus, runners can get an individualized number to determine their ability to go from a state of rest to maximum effort. The methods for determining maximal heart rate vary, and include timed runs on a track, hill repeats at a given distance, and treadmill running at gradually increasing speeds. Whichever method a runner uses to determine maximal heart rate, the key is to use a heart rate monitor while running, and to stay within specified zones depending on the given workout.
有些资料建议可以简单地以220减去年龄,得出最大心率值,但是这种计算方法太过简单且意义不大。更好的建议是使用储备心率(heart rate reserve, HRR),它兼顾考虑了静止心率和最大心率,即跑者从休息状态到力竭状态的具体心率范围波动值。测量最大心率,有多种方法,在跑道上、在坡道上、在跑步机上等等。不管你用何种方法,关键还是使用心率表,在不同的强度下得出具体的心率区间。

Speed or heart rate? Which one is “best” for training?
速度还是心率?哪一种才是“最佳”的训练方式?
Proponents of velocity based training maintain that its key advantage is that training paces are directly tied to recent performance and goal racing speed. Some will criticize heart rate training is being too limiting, because factors such a heat, fatigue, and dehydration will affect heart rate and thus require the runner to slow down too much.
主张速度训练的跑者认为速度训练的优势在于将平日的锻炼配速与目标的竞赛配速有效关联了起来。他们通常会批评心率训练方式太过局限化了,因为心率会受太多因素的影响,譬如心脏本身、身体疲劳、缺水,而这些因素往往会要求跑者太过降低自己的配速。
On the other hand, proponents of heart rate training will point to the world-class cyclists in the Tour de France, who use heart rate monitors in training and in racing, and say “if they’re doing it, then it must have value.” They will also argue that heart-rate during exercise is directly tied to scientific measurements of cardiac output, oxygen usage, and consumption of fuel (carbohydrates and fat).
同样的,主张心率训练的跑者会以环法自行车大赛上的世界级骑手很多都是以心率方式来锻炼的为依据,“既然他们成功了,心率训练就一定有价值。”而且他们指出,在锻炼的过程中,心率与心脏供血量、氧气使用效率和能量(碳水化合物和脂肪)利用效率有着最直接的关联。
Again, there is no single method that is a “magic pill” for improving as a runner. There are entire books devoted to each method, and the number of resources in print and online is vast. The best advice for runners is to learn the basic concepts and terminology for velocity based training and heart rate training, find a method, learn its principles, and stick to it.
所以,对于跑者的进阶而言,这两种训练方法并不能被神话为“神奇的小药丸”。你可以在网上或者书店里找到讨论这两种训练方式的大量书籍和资源。最佳的建议就是,花足够的时间去了解这两者的基本概念和原理,选择一种训练方式,通过锻炼去深入理解它的本义,然后,然后就是坚持啦。
 楼主| 发表于 2013-1-6 11:54 | 显示全部楼层
忘了帖原文链接了:http://www.twentysixtwo.org/imag ... locity_Training.pdf
罪过啊。。。罪过。。。
发表于 2013-1-6 13:10 | 显示全部楼层
学习了,O(∩_∩)O谢谢
发表于 2013-1-6 14:03 | 显示全部楼层
学习了,很好的专业知识。
发表于 2013-1-6 14:37 | 显示全部楼层
心率的高低可以直观地反映身体的疲劳程度,而且与VO2max、乳酸门槛等数据相比,又非常容易测量,即快速又简单,所以通过监控心率来把握运动强度不失为一种方便、准确的的方法。

之前一直觉得好像自己没到40岁,应该不需要配心率带,但随着最近读书后的体会,心率带对大多数健身者而言都是比较适用的。
发表于 2013-1-6 14:44 | 显示全部楼层
坐在地板上看了又看,看的有些晕
总之,最后,没有对“Which One Should I Use?孰好孰坏 ”给出答案......
结论是,无论A还是B,选一种,坚持......

点评

嗯 马拉松就是一种坚持,不管是训练还是比赛  发表于 2013-1-6 19:22
发表于 2013-1-6 14:48 | 显示全部楼层
有道理,谢谢提供。
发表于 2013-1-6 17:00 | 显示全部楼层
心率训练俺试过一段时间,对心浮气躁的俺不是很适合,所以,俺还是坚定地走速度训练方式,尽管经常在大赛上崩溃,可依然乐此不疲。

点评

您是酒精含量过高  发表于 2013-1-6 19:24
发表于 2013-1-6 17:21 | 显示全部楼层
黑子 发表于 2013-1-6 17:00
心率训练俺试过一段时间,对心浮气躁的俺不是很适合,所以,俺还是坚定地走速度训练方式,尽管经常在大赛上 ...

适合自己的,自己又很开心就好!跑步的目的就是锻炼体质!!开心快乐!!
发表于 2013-1-6 18:17 | 显示全部楼层
黑子 发表于 2013-1-6 17:00
心率训练俺试过一段时间,对心浮气躁的俺不是很适合,所以,俺还是坚定地走速度训练方式,尽管经常在大赛上 ...

寻找适合自己气质的训练方式
发表于 2013-1-6 19:30 | 显示全部楼层
我觉得这文章不是说哪个方法更好,而是给我们介绍了速度训练和心率训练的两个着重点:VDOT&zone
如文章所说:心率训练,只要你在有效心率范围内,就会有训练的效果,速度是相对的。
而VDOT,文中猪猪给的网址,我觉得应该输入最近的一次全力跑的马拉松成绩计算才比较靠谱。
大家怎么看?

点评

元芳认为此话言之有理  发表于 2013-1-6 21:47
发表于 2013-1-8 10:43 | 显示全部楼层
心脏总是以先知的方式提高心率。运动强度和心率存在极为线性的关系,强度越大,心率越高,只有当运动强度很是大时,才变为非线性(心率到达平台)。

由于它的先知,利用心率来规定训练强度,的确是一种可行的办法,也可以利用心率表在一段时间内评判自己进步与否。
发表于 2013-1-8 19:01 | 显示全部楼层
vdot是基于著名的长跑教头Daniels(“Runner's World”评选出的“The World's Best Coach”(世界最佳教练)提出的跑步理论而推出的计算公式。但是,他也有相应的心率zone。
其实真没法说哪个理论更强,两者只是自己训练的一个依据。
我觉得一个可靠的训练计划,更为重要
发表于 2013-1-8 19:41 | 显示全部楼层
支持LZ美女的说法,我关注两种方式已经很久了,孰优孰劣确实难以区分,看来还是那句话:适合自己的就是最好的。

业余跑者只要努力,提高是肯定的,只是提高的幅度和速度有多快而已,但问题是某人用了一种方法提高了,他就会觉得这种方法非常好,其实实际的情况是很有可能被他忽略一种更好的方法。

简而言之,我觉得首先要学习、而且要认真学习,彻底搞懂训练的来龙去脉,所谓的知其然还要知其所以然,然后不断总结自己的过去得失,经常和高手讨论,不断地修正自己的未来道路,这才是放之四海而皆准的!
发表于 2013-1-10 10:04 | 显示全部楼层
二姑娘晶晶 发表于 2013-1-8 19:01
vdot是基于著名的长跑教头Daniels(“Runner's World”评选出的“The World's Best Coach”(世界最佳教练) ...

Daniels在耐力跑界的地位有目共睹,我记得有一个表格,就叫DanielsTable,除了换算VDOT值、各种配速外,对应的心率范围值也有的,很详尽。
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