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Winter Advisory-冬天的跑步建议

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发表于 2012-12-31 19:34 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
[size=+0]How to make cold-weather runs safe--and even fun.
如何在寒冷的天气里跑的更安全,更有乐趣

By
Melanie Radzicki McManus
Published
December 29, 2005

One of the simple joys of running is the connection it gives us to the outdoors. Breathing in fresh air, witnessing a sunrise, and experiencing the changing seasons keep us coming back for more. Well, most of the time. It's tough to be as enthusiastic about running outdoors when the mercury drops below zero, 30-mile-per-hour winds hurl ice pellets into your face, or a sudden thaw forces you to play hopscotch around ankle-deep puddles. So we consulted the experts on the smartest strategies for staying warm during the cold season.
简单而快乐的跑步可以成为我们和户外的纽带。呼吸新鲜的空气,欣赏清晨的日出,而四季的轮回更使我们无法割舍户外运动,当然这是在一年的大部分时间里。但是,当温度降到零度以下,每小时30英里(48km)的风将冰珠到扔到你的脸上,或突然的冰雪融化迫使你象玩跳房子游戏般地在没过脚腕儿的水坑之间跳跃时,继续保持在室外跑步的热情将变得比较困难。因此,就如何在寒冷的季节更好地保持温暖,我们向一些专家咨询进行了咨询。

Out or In?
户外还是室内

Many serious runners say it's never too cold to run outside. Experts agree that you can ward off hypothermia and frostbite by covering skin with apparel that wicks moisture and repels rain and snow, and by maintaining a steady pace throughout a run.
许多热衷于跑步的人说他们从来不会因为天气太冷而停止在室外跑步。专家们认为你可以通过穿上速干和防雨雪的衣服来防止体温的下降和冻伤,进而在跑步的过程中维持稳定的节奏。

In normal conditions, keeping your body temperature up isn't an issue. But windy weather and slick surfaces can slow you down, lowering your metabolic heat production and increasing your risk of hypothermia or frostbite, says Ronnie Carda, coordinator of the University of Wisconsin-Madison'sphysical education activity program and a marathon coach.
Ronnie Carda,美国威斯康星大学体育教育项目的协调员及马拉松教练,说在正常条件下,保持你的体温不是问题。但是,在有风的天气和光滑的路面可能是你慢下来,进而减少你代谢所产生的热量,并增加你体温降低和产生冻伤的风险。

"When conditions are ugly, run shorter and stay closer to home," Carda says. Run loops in your neighborhood--if you get tired, slip on ice, or get wet, you can quickly escape the elements.
Carda说:“当条件比较恶劣时,你应该尽可能在离家近的地方跑的短一点儿”。在你的小区跑圈是个不错的选择,这样在你感觉疲劳,或是在冰上摔倒,亦或是身上弄湿了,你都可以很快逃离这种困境,跑回家中

Stephen Fealy, M.D., a runner and sports-medicine physician at New York City's Hospital for Special Surgery, is even more cautious. "You shouldn't run outside for more than 30 minutes in temperatures below zero," he says. In addition to the risk of hypothermia and frostbite, Dr. Fealy says that you have a decreased ability to feel pain in negative-degree temps. If an old injury flares up or a new one arises, you may not feel it and could make things worse by continuing to run.
Stephen Fealy,医学博士,跑者,纽约市医院运动医学的特种手术医生,甚至更加谨慎,他说:“在华氏零度(摄氏零下17度)以下的天气下,你不应该在室外跑步超过30分钟”。同时,对于体温降低和冻伤的风险,他认为在零度以下的气温中,你对疼痛的感知能力将下降,如果这时候你的旧伤复发或是有新的伤痛产生,你可能无法感知和发现,如果继续跑步,将使情况更加糟糕。

But don't just consult the thermometer--wind chill is actually more important. It can be a tolerable 30 degrees outside, for example, but if the winds are gusting at 20 miles per hour, the resulting negative-15-degree wind chill could make you reconsider an outdoor run. If you do venture out, take note of the wind's direction. National Weather Service meteorologist and runner John Jensenius, of Grey, Maine, says to start off running into the wind. "If the wind is at your back, it'll push you along, so you'll pick up your pace and warm up quickly," he says. "But when you turn around to head back, you'll be running into the wind. Your temperature will drop, and your risk of hypothermia or frostbite will increase."
但是, 不要仅仅依靠温度计,寒风其实更加重要。比如,在室外你可以忍受华氏30度(摄氏零下1度),但是,如果有20英里/小时(32km/h)的风,所产生的结果将是华氏零下15度(摄氏零下26度)的寒风,你应该重新是否还要到考虑室外跑步。如果你真的想出去冒险,你应该注意风向。缅因州格雷镇的John Jensenius,他就职于美国国家气象局,同时他也也是一名跑者,他到在风中跑步时,他说:“如果风在你的背后,则它将推着你前行,这将有利于你加快你的节奏并使你的身体尽快变暖。但是如果你转过身来逆风而行,你的温度将会下降,体温降低和冻伤的风险将会增加”。

Gearing Up
装备

Before heading out, you carefully layer your clothing, then grab a pair of running shoes with little thought. Big mistake, says Jay Smith, M.D., associate professor of physical medicine and rehabilitation at the Mayo Clinic, who recently studied how temperature affects the cushioning of running shoes. "As temperatures get colder, the shock absorption of shoes decreases," he says. "A loss of shock absorption may result in a higher injury risk." Dr. Smith evaluated four different cushioning systems and found that shoes with a polyurethane midsole were impacted the most by cold weather. When shopping for a pair of winter shoes, ask the staff at your local running store for a pair with EVA foam cushioning, the material that was least affected by cold temps in Dr. Smith's study. And wear trainers with the sturdiest uppers--those with waterproof materials or heavier, supportive overlays and little or no mesh paneling. The porous mesh on lighter-weight shoes will let wind, snow, and water seep inside, quickly freezing your feet.
你可能就对抗严寒的跑步服装作了充分的准备,吸汗层、保暖层、防风层,然后就随便抓了一双跑鞋出门了,这可能是个巨大的错误!来自Mayo诊所理疗与复建科的副教授Jay Smith医学博士最近研究了温度对于跑鞋缓冲性能的影响。随着温度的降低,鞋子吸收冲击力的能力也会同样降低,而总所周至,对于广大初阶跑者而言,鞋子如果不能很好地吸收冲击力,也意味着受伤可能性的增加。Smith医生研究了市面上4种不同的缓冲系统,发现以高分子聚氨酯材料为中底的跑鞋,其缓冲性受温度的影响最小。所以为了应对冬天,你需要准备一双以EVA或更好的高分子材料为缓冲中底的跑鞋。在考虑了温度对中底的影响外,你还需要考虑鞋面的材料。轻量训练鞋的多孔网面材料对于冬季而言显然是不适宜的,风、雪、雨,任何一项的渗入,就可能冻伤你的脚。尽量选择鞋面有防水层、防护层的跑鞋,虽然它们牺牲了重量,但却能在冬天里更好地保护你的双脚。

Runners also tend to overlook the importance of hydration in the winter. Surprisingly, one of the more common maladies in cold-weather marathons is dehydration. "Because runners don't see their sweat losses in the winter, they're not attentive to their drinking," says Lawrence Armstrong, Ph.D., professor of environmental and exercise physiology at the University of Connecticut. But it's possible to sweat just as much as you do on a warm day--especially if you're layered up. Fill your water bottle with sports drink to keep it from freezing (the sugar content lowers its freezing point).
还有一个装备是跑者在冬季往往忽视的,那就是补水装备,令人惊讶的是在严寒季节的马拉松比赛上,最大的伤病往往就是脱水。来自康尼狄克大学的运动理疗系Lawrence Armstrong教授认为在冬天,人们以为自己出的汗少,就忽视了补水,但事实上你出的汗可能与你在温暖天气跑步时所出的汗一样多,特别是当你被一层一层服装所裹严的时候。所以在出门前,记得在你的水壶或水袋中灌满运动饮料,而且记得避免你的饮料被冻住
Location, Location, Location
[size=+0]地点、地点、地点

Even soft surfaces like grass or cinder can freeze and become hard in the winter. If you've got a bum knee or, say, a history of shin splints, it's probably best to alternate outside runs with treadmill running or cross-training activities, says Carda.
草地、煤渣跑道也会结冰,如果因为你之前的伤痛,大部分是因为膝盖问题,你必须要在柔软的路面上训练的话,你可能需要在冬天选择妥协一下,将户外跑移步到室内跑步机上去或者其它交叉训练科目。

Also, consider relocating your running route. On the coldest days, members of the Running Club North in Fairbanks, Alaska, head for the hills, where it can be 10 to 20 degrees warmer than low-lying areas. They also avoid routes along lakes and rivers, where winds can really bite because of a lack of tree cover.
即使是坚持户外跑,你也应该审视你的跑步路线。在最严寒的人居地带,阿拉斯加跑步俱乐部的成员会在当地最冷的季节往高地跑,因为那里的温度会比他们平时跑步的低洼地区高上10-20度。同时他们会让路线避开湖泊和河流,因为由于缺少树木的遮挡,空旷区域的寒风往往比低温更容易伤人。

While running in harsh weather can earn you bragging rights, there's no shame in sticking to the treadmill--especially if you want to train hard. Christine Clark, of Anchorage, Alaska, won the 2000 U.S. Olympic Marathon Trials in 2:33:31 after training mostly on a treadmill.
也许你可能会因为自己能在恶劣天气坚持户外跑步而自豪,但在跑步机上训练也不是一件羞愧的事情——特别是对自己训练要求很严格的那些跑者,他们不因为天气原因而跑休。这里再提一下阿拉斯加,当地的一位跑者Christine Clark,他在美国2000年奥运会选拔赛上跑出了2:33:31的成绩,而他大部分的训练都是在跑步机上完成的,理智加毅力的胜利!

Additional reporting by Richetta Coelho
Richetta Coelho的附加报告

The hardy members of the Running Club North in Fairbanks, Alaska, don't let single-digit temps and negative wind chills trap them inside. Here are their top strategies.by Richetta Coelho
阿拉斯加的费尔班克思的RCN跑步俱乐部的一些顽固分子,他们拒绝低温和强风将他们困住。这里是他们的顶级战略

Easy Does It: "In tough conditions, don't worry about pace," says Keith Pollock. Make the winter season a time to recuperate from hard training. "For most of us it's just the joy of getting out of the house and enjoying each other's company."
容易做的:“在艰难的条件下,不必担心配速, ”基斯说波洛克。让冬季成为艰苦训练的恢复时段。训练。 “对于我们大多数人来说,仅仅是从房子里走出来,享受彼此的陪伴。 ”

Dress Up: For most of the 375 Running Club North members, running without a balaclava or a neck gaiter is like running naked. They also recommend gear with zippers, so you can vary the air flow near your body in changing conditions.
衣着:对于大多数的375RCN的成员来说,没有Balaclava头套或者围脖的奔跑就跟裸奔一样。他们还推荐带有拉链的服装,这样你可以随着环境的变化来改变你周围的空气。

Warm Feet: Insulate vented shoes with duct tape. Also, RCN members suggest preheating your shoes with a five-minute blast of warm air from a hairdryer (keep it a foot away).
暖脚:防风鞋。此外,RCN的成员建议将你的鞋子用热风筒先预热五分钟(保持一尺远)。

Be Flexible: Alaska winters are marked by periods of brief sunlight, so these diehards try to adjust their schedules so they can run when there is daylight. If you're a morning or evening runner, consider switching to mid-day runs during the winter.
机动性:阿拉斯加的冬天有个短暂的阳光期间, 这些顽固分子尝试调整自己的时间表,使他们能够在日光下跑步。如果你是一个早晨或傍晚跑者,可以考虑在冬季改为中午跑步。

Breathe Easy: Some runners suffer cold-induced asthma on winter runs. "Wearing a balaclava warms and humidifies the air you're breathing in," member Gail Koepf says.
轻松呼吸:一些跑步者会在冬天跑步时,患感冒诱发哮喘。 “戴Balaclava头套的话,可以将你呼入的空气加温和加湿。 ”成员Gail Koepf说。

Defrost: Damp clothes increase heat loss. Postrun, club members change into fleeces and sweats before heading to a coffee shop where hot beverages provide further comfort.
解冻:湿衣服会加速热量的流失。俱乐部成员Postrun在跑完之后换好衣服,然后再前往一间咖啡厅,那里会有舒服的热饮料提供

转自:http://www.runnersworld.com/cold-weather-running/winter-advisory?cm_mmc=NL-TrainingExtra-_-1145958-_-12252012-_-How-to-Stay-Safe-on-Winter-Runs<http://www.runnersworld.com/cold-weather-running/winter-advisory?cm_mmc=NL-TrainingExtra-_-1145958-_-12252012-_-How-to-Stay-Safe-on-Winter-Runs>



发表于 2012-12-31 20:02 | 显示全部楼层
二猪,上面的文章是你们翻译的吗?我觉得在东北跑步的朋友可以多看看。
发表于 2012-12-31 20:26 | 显示全部楼层
主要针对寒冷天气环境的指导
发表于 2012-12-31 20:29 | 显示全部楼层
支持黑哥的发言!!,谢谢!!
发表于 2012-12-31 20:31 | 显示全部楼层
冬天跑步的朋友进来看看,帮助很大!
发表于 2012-12-31 21:46 | 显示全部楼层
学习了,专家的知识。
发表于 2012-12-31 22:46 | 显示全部楼层
向北方严寒季节坚持跑步的朋友们致敬。
发表于 2013-1-1 05:49 | 显示全部楼层
很好的译文。我们这里冬天很冷的,很需要这样的跑步知识。谢谢了。
发表于 2013-1-1 09:01 | 显示全部楼层
学习了,谢谢。
发表于 2013-1-1 20:43 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 李俊 于 2013-1-2 10:41 编辑

这两天上海也够冷的,这篇文章也适用。

我从这篇文章结合这两天寒潮训练体会到的是:
1) 注意保暖和及时换掉湿衣服
2) 选择有防护的鞋
3) 避风(特别是避开空旷区域)
4) 勤补水
5) 跑步机训练并不羞愧

但是不管任何季节,一定记得理智高于励志!
发表于 2013-1-2 09:58 | 显示全部楼层
这篇文章很长,估计很多跑友都没有耐心读完,其实,这篇文章里介绍了很多我们平时忽视的细节,而这些细节很可能对我们的身体造成非常大的伤害。俺强烈建议北京、清原的跑友们好好看看。
发表于 2013-1-2 10:46 | 显示全部楼层
这两天在和跑友的交流中,经常会提醒他们冬季跑步的注意事项,而且好像这两天全国范围内又要降温了。

不过我有一个自己个人的问题,冬季对我而言是一个困难的训练季节:被窝的诱惑、高高在上的pm25指数、各种节日聚会的养膘,明显训练量就下去了。

如果开春没有比赛,在冬天应该如何制定训练计划,是不是不应该上强度,以慢跑培养有氧耐力为主?
发表于 2013-1-2 19:21 | 显示全部楼层
我找了一篇关于冬季跑的,分享给大家:
Dr. Pribut's Top Ten Winter Running Tips
Pribut博士的关于冬季跑步的十大贴士

The Do's and Dont's of Winter Running冬季跑步的要与不要

1. Dress in layers. Use light weight wicking fibers as the layer closest to your body.
   多穿几层。使用重量轻,吸湿排汗纤维层最接近你的身体。

2. Do wear socks made of synthetic fibers that wick moisture away from your skin to help prevent blisters and athlete's foot.
   穿合成纤维制成的袜子,这样可以让湿气远离你的皮肤,以防止你的脚出水泡。

3. Remember that your head may be responsible for about 40% of heat loss. Keep your head covered and wear gloves.
  请记住:你的头会流失约40%的热量,所以戴上帽子以及手套。

4. Apply skin protection using sun block and moisturizers as appropriate. UV exposure is not good in the winter as well as summer.
   保护皮肤。适当使用防晒霜和保湿。与夏天相比,冬季的紫外线照射不高。

5. Don't forget to replace your fluids on long runs.
   不要忘记,跑长距离要补水

6. Warm up slowly and gently before your runs and especially before doing speed work.
   在跑之前,慢慢热身,尤其是跑强度的训练。

7. Do wear sport specific running shoes. Running shoes do not have the lateral support needed for tennis. Help yourself avoid ankle sprains and other injuries and do fit your running shoes or other sports shoes with the type of sock you intend to wear them with. Do replace your running shoes often. Replace them at least every 350 - 450 miles run.
  要穿特殊的运动跑鞋。跑步鞋没有网球鞋的那种侧向支撑。为了让你的脚踝避免扭伤等伤害,建议选择一个适合你打算穿的跑鞋或者其他运动鞋的袜子。经常更换你的跑鞋。至少350-450mi需要更换一次。

8. Don't run on ice. Beware of Black Ice on the pavement.
    不要在冰上跑步,小心路面上的黑冰(硬而滑的透明薄冰)。

9. Be careful running in low light conditions both because of road traffic, uneven pavement and also be aware of increased balance problems.
    在光线较暗的条件下跑步也需要注意。因为道路交通以及路面不平的原因,需要注意会引起失去平衡。

10. Don't do speedwork in bone chilling cold. You are risking injury. Most wise runners use this season for maintenance runs.
      在寒风刺骨的时候,不要进行速度训练。会有受伤的风险。最明智的跑者会利用这个季节来作为维持状态跑。
发表于 2013-1-2 19:30 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 二姑娘晶晶 于 2013-1-3 09:07 编辑

另外,http://www.squidoo.com/best-winter-running-gear 这个网站有详细的冬季跑步服销售
发表于 2013-1-2 21:09 | 显示全部楼层
本帖最后由 李俊 于 2013-1-2 21:23 编辑
二姑娘晶晶 发表于 2013-1-2 19:21
我找了一篇关于冬季跑的,分享给大家:
Dr. Pribut's Top Ten Winter Running Tips
Pribut博士的关于冬季 ...

关于第3点,明天准备试试LD给我买的加厚抓绒帽,既是帽子,又是面罩和围脖,就是有点像本拉登。另外,我发现我的手套太单薄了,有漏风的嫌疑,回到家手冻得衣服都脱不了。

关于第4点,以后会记得跑完回家后,一定要涂保湿。不过跑前防晒工作估计我人懒肯定会省去,但应该问题不大。

关于第6点,最近训练,保证各15分钟热身与冷身,开始体会到好处了。

关于最后一点,Most wise runners use this season for maintenance runs,好吧,我应该算wise吧!
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